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印度一瞥|【文化多样性】:印度文化的多元之程度,超乎想象

我与我们的世界 2019-06-18 22:24:25

【世界决定视界】【视界决定世界】

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。

我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。

欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史消息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩。

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本期导读:那加兰邦(印地语:नागालैण्ड,拉丁字母转写:Nāgāland)是印度的一个山地邦,位于印度东北部的喜马拉亚山脉,西连阿萨姆邦,南接曼尼普尔邦。那加兰邦大部分地区是崇山峻岭,道路多为羊肠小道,交通不便。全邦有860个村庄,村与村相距甚远,村庄大都建在山顶上或山坡上。


该邦名称“那加兰”字面意为“那加人(居住的)地方”,而这些“那加人”自称为“龙族”的后人(Nāgā是“龙”的意思)。那加人有不少村落至今仍保存着原始部落时代的生活方式。由于在印度受英国殖民统治期间受过不少苦头,所以对于外来陌生人,起初总是持怀疑态度,存有戒心,保持一定距离。只有在他们认为对方是好人而不是敌人的时候,才会表示热情欢迎,给以盛情招待。


那加人是印度东北部山区与缅甸交界的黄色人种的统称,主要为蒙古人种,而且使用语言众多,至少有30种,均属于汉藏语系。那加语言被分为5个主要语支:孔亚克语支(该语支和中国的景颇语同属萨尔语群)、奥语支(Ao languages)、昂那米-波丘里语支(Angami-Pochuri languages)、泽梅语支(Zeme languages)、唐库尔语支(Tangkhul languages),后四个语支传统上归为库基-钦-那加语言。


那加兰邦的16个部落各有极为独特的习俗。那加人与北印度主体、讲印欧语系的高加索人种和南印度主体、讲达罗毗荼语系的达罗毗荼人种迥异。那加人一般在家里使用自己本部落的语言,在和其他部落接触时主要使用那加兰语(Nagamese,即阿萨姆语的简化方言)和英语。近些年来,当地中学中开设了印地语课。


那加族最著名的习俗是在19世纪前的猎首传统。猎首(headhunting),又称猎头,中国古籍作馘首,台湾原住民称出草,指将人杀死后砍下头颅并收集的一种习俗。许多古代文明都曾流行过猎首的做法,有史籍记载的包括:古中国人、台湾原住民、日本人、阿富汗的努里斯坦人、古印度的阿萨姆人和那加兰人、缅甸的佤族、婆罗洲人、印度尼西亚人、菲律宾人、密克罗尼西亚人、美拉尼西亚人、新西兰毛利人、亚马逊平原与美国大平原地区的印第安人、尼日利亚人、欧洲的凯尔特人和斯基泰人等。


猎首的做法到第二次世界大战期间还在太平洋战场出现过,但到今天已经在全世界范围内基本绝迹了。在人类学界,猎首行为在社会中的角色一直是一个讨论的热点课题。当代学者普遍认为,猎首行为是曾经在社会群体和个人的等级制度的形成、强化和维持过程中扮演关键角色的一种仪式。一些人类学家提出的理论认为,猎首行为源于宗教观念中“灵魂栖于头颅中”的看法,而猎首则是为了带回并最终征服敌人的灵魂。在人类学著作中,猎首行为出现的直接原因包括羞辱对手、统计战功、完成某些仪式、维持星象平衡、展现阳刚、勇猛、嗜血和威信等。



Do people in India's northeast feel alienated?

居住在印度东北那旮旯的人们,会感到被其他地区的印度人排斥么?



Nagaland, a hilly state in India's north east, went to the polls earlier this week. The BBC's Shalu Yadav and Sharad Badhe asked people what it means to be Indian given that the region has often complained of racial stereotyping and discrimination by the rest of the country.

那加兰邦,位于印度东北部山区,本周早些时候进行了选举。我们的记者对当地的人们进行了采访,问当地人“作为印度人意味着什么?”,之所以这样问,主要是因为该地区的人经常抱怨说,印度其他地方的人们对当地人有种族偏见和歧视。


Ale Metha, 35

阿乐·美塔,35岁

I have worked for years in several cities across India. When people get to know that I am from Nagaland, they say, "oh you eat dogs, you eat snakes" and they say that's so "barbaric".

我在印度的其他几个城市曾工作多年,当人们知道我来自那加兰邦时,他们总会说,“哦,你们吃狗肉,你们吃蛇”,并会说,这样吃真的“很野蛮”。


They say, "How can you eat pigs? They are so disgusting!"

他们也会说,“你们怎么能吃猪肉呢?猪那么恶心!”


I don't deny that we do eat pork. Pork is delicious!

我不否认我们吃猪肉。猪肉很美味!


I realised that it's because of ignorance that they judge us in this manner. So I try to educate them on our life and culture.

我觉得,主要是因为愚昧无知,他们才这样评判我们。因此,我会尽力给他们介绍我们的生活方式和我们的文化。


And, by the way, I don't eat dog meat. I love them too much to eat them.

而且,顺便提下,我不吃狗肉。我非常爱狗狗,怎么会吃狗肉呢。


Some people are quite open to finding out about other cultures; they are ready to experiment. Some Indians have also travelled to the north-east and explored the region. They praise us for our hospitality.

有些人很开放,会发现认识其他文化,并会愿意去尝试。有些印度人也会到东北那旮旯去旅行,对那个区域进行探知。他们会赞赏我们热情好客。


I've never really thought of myself as not being an Indian. Nagaland is on the map of India.

我真的从没觉得,我不是印度人。那加兰邦就在印度的地图上。


Yes, I am a Naga but that doesn't mean I am not an Indian or any less of an Indian than Indians who live elsewhere in the country.

是的,我是那加人,但这并不意味着,我不是印度人,也并不意味着,居住在印度其他地区的印度人比我更“印度”。


I hate to say this but yes, people from the north-east do face discrimination in other parts of India.

我不想说这些,但确实,来自东北那旮旯的人们,会面临印度其他地区人们的歧视。


We are also discriminated in the workplace. I worked in a company in the capital, Delhi, and I felt that those who were less qualified than me and those who didn't perform as well as I did were promoted over me.

在工作场合,我们也会被歧视。我在首都德里的一家公司工作过,我觉得,有些没我能力强以及没有我表现好的人,都会比我升职要快。


But I continued to believe in myself because I am who I am. And eventually I was rewarded for my work.

不过,我会继续相信自己,因为我就是我,而且最终我也会因我的付出而有所获。


Yakuza Solo, 31

亚库匝·索罗,31岁


I lived in the eastern city of Kolkata for eight years and I never experienced any discrimination.

我曾在东部城市加尔各答生活过八年,我从没遇到过任何歧视。


People accepted that I am different from them in some ways, just as they were different from me in some ways.

人们会觉得,某些方面我和他们不同,就像我觉得,某些方面他们和我不同一样。


Shie Young, 74

希叶·杨,74岁


I'm a farmer and I have six children. I have never travelled outside of Nagaland.

我是个农民,有六个孩子,我从没离开过那加兰。


My family and I have always lived in Nagaland. I don't know much about India outside of Nagaland. And I don't want to send my children outside Nagaland because I fear they might be mistreated.

我的家人和我一直生活在那加兰。那加兰之外的印度其他地区,我知道的很少。而且,我不想让我的孩子离开那加兰,主要是因为我担心他们会遭到不公对待。


There's no difference between my Indian and Naga identity. I'm quite happy with life and now I am just waiting for the day I will die.

我觉得,印度人身份与那加人身份之间没啥区别。我对我的生活相当满意,现在,我只需静待我天命的到来。


Ato Richa, 30

阿托·理查,30岁


I went to medical school in the southern state of Karnataka and I lived there for six to seven years. I have also travelled to other parts of India.

我在印度南部卡纳塔克邦的一个医学学校上学,在那里生活了六七年,我也去过印度的其他地区。


Being Indian - that's my nationality; it's my identity when I am out in the world. Being a Naga is my bloodline, my race, my clan - that is also my identity.

印度人,这是我的国籍身份,当我出国后到了其他国家,那就是我的身份。那加人,是我的血脉身份、我的种族身份、我的部族身份,这也是我的身份。


I have never felt isolated from the rest of the country. But I do feel sad when I read or hear of stories about discrimination against people from the north-east. That's when I feel a little isolated.

我从没觉得与印度其他地区有隔离之感,不过当我看到或听说印度东北部的人遭到歧视时,确实感到悲伤,此时,便会有点隔离之感。


But that said, I have a lot of good friends in cities such as Bangalore and Mumbai. We keep in touch and we visit each other often.

尽管这样说,但我在诸如班加罗尔和孟买等城市,也有很多好朋友。我们保持着联络,也经常会拜访彼此。


The discrimination we face in other parts of India is often because of a lack of understanding. We also look different. Many people know nothing about Nagaland or its culture. School textbooks have never taught them anything about this part of the country.

我们在印度其他地区之所以遭到歧视,主要是因为缺乏了解。我们长得不一样,很多人对那加兰邦以及该地区的文化不了解,学校的课本上,从没教过关于印度东北地区的任何东西。


Akhuie, 80

阿克绘叶,80岁


I sell chillies, oranges, beans and bananas. I'm very happy with life. I have only twenty years left to turn 100!

我卖辣椒、桔子、豆子,还有香蕉。我对自己的生活非常满意。只需再有20年,我就100啦!


Whenever you come to Nagaland, you'll find me here, in the same spot. I have never been outside Nagaland. In fact, I have never been outside my village, Phomching. Everyone in my village is illiterate.

不管你什么时候来那加兰,你都能在这里见到我,这个同样的地点。我从没离开过那加兰。其实,我连我们的村子都没离开过。我们村里的每个人,都不识字。


We just stay here because we are happy here. We don't want to go outside. I don't know anything about India. I only know Naga people. I don't think much about what being an Indian means. I'm happy with my simple life.

我们只待在这里,主要是因为,在这里我们很幸福。我们不想去外面。关于印度,我知道的很少。我只知道那加人。作为印度人意味着什么,我不想太多。过着这样简简单单的生活,我很幸福。


Aphan, 80

阿坡汉,80岁


I don't know anything about India. No one in my family has ever travelled outside Nagaland.

关于印度,我不太了解。我的所有家人,都从没离开过那加兰。


I don't want to send my children outside of Nagaland because I want them to be here for me when I die. If they go away to other cities, they will not be able to return in time.

我不想让孩子离开那加兰,主要是因为,我死的时候想让他们在身边。如果他们去了其他城市,他们会来不及返回到这里。


It's all the same - India, Nagaland, Burma (he lives in a village - Lungwa - that borders Burma).

所有的都一样,印度、那加兰、缅甸,没啥区别(他居住在一个名叫Lungwa的村庄,该村与缅甸接壤)。


I got my tattoo in decades ago as a mark of victory when my tribe defeated another in a battle.

几十年前我做了这些面部刺花,主要是为了纪念我们部落在一场战斗中击败了另一个部落。


I have led a happy life - I eat, drink, listen to music, sing and, in my younger days, I used to dream of women.

我对我的生活很满意,该吃吃、该喝喝,听听音乐,唱唱歌,而且,我年轻时,还经常会梦到美女。


往期精彩:


印度社会一瞥|《经济学人》:爱情,在不同信仰之间挣扎

印度一瞥|《国际非政府组织报告》:童婚之毒,印度之痛

克什米尔|《BBC》:印度警方击毙克什米尔“死亡贩卖商”

民族主义|《关注印度》:印度的民族主义,源远且流长

【当历史照进现实】:中国远征军在印度墓地,牵动两岸神经

【加印关系】:特鲁多向来“火热”,为啥印度行辣末“冷”?

遥望世界2050|《普华永道》:中国和印度,将领跑全球

中印关系|《经济学人》:中印互为近邻,会否唇齿相依?

排行榜|《国际关系重镇一览》:大国博弈,本质是智慧角力

深度报告|【国际竞争】:全球竞争力排行,中国表现怎样?


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