Annapurna Mamidipudi 马克斯·普朗克学会
慕惟仁（Viren Murthy） 威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校
艺术与政治是一个经久不衰的话题，但是音乐有一个特殊的品性，即纯音乐似乎只看重声音而跟政治无关。但是近些年左派学者强调音乐的社会与政治背景，并由此探讨音乐的政治性。尤其是一些激进的左派学者从社会学的角度指出，十九世纪以来，印度南方古典音乐是由高种姓人群垄断了，所有歌词都是和印度教有密切关系， 并由此排斥信仰其他宗教的听众。此次讲座正是在这一学术史背景下，重新思考音乐与政治的问题。 我们将从音乐本身出发，即从印度南方音乐的形式和内容本身出发对前人的研究提出一些质疑。通过介绍几代著名的歌唱家，包括Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar, G.N. Balasubramaniam, M.S. Subbalakshmi, Vidushi R. Vedavalli 与T.M Krishna，我们将寻找印度音乐的形式与内容的不同的政治功能。即音乐形式上的非政治性恰好可以提供一种对现存结构的批判视角。
Rethinking the Political Efficacy of Art: On Theorizing of Carnatic Music
We examine South Indian Classical Music or Carnatic music to pose some theoretical issues connected to modernity, politics, and the so-called invention of tradition. In addition to providing our audience with an introduction to this art form, we will question recent theorizations of Carnatic music. Radical scholars have recently chastised Carnatic music for falsely claiming ancient heritage and reproducing caste and gender-related hierarchies. From this perspective, they appear to have pulled the rug from beneath the conservatives. Of course, Carnatic music as a “classical” form only emerged in the modern period, largely to compete with the West and since the twentieth century, both the performers and the audience are primarily upper cast. However, we highlight aspects of music, especially the concept of raga, that cannot be subsumed under caste or simple concepts of modernity. There is theoretical and political potential of Carnatic music as raga music that we have not yet begun to explore. We can catch a glimpse of this potential by examining practices such as improvisation. We will illustrate our point by looking at the works and writings of actual musicians including the old stalwarts such as Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar, G.N. Balasubramaniam, along with female vocalists such as M.S. Subbalakshimi, Vidushi R. Vedavalli and T.M Krishna. We aim to provide a way of looking at Carnatic music that enables us to rethink the dichotomy between the radicals and the conservatives in music and perhaps beyond.